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经济科学 - 2020, Vol. 42(2): 20-33
收入水平、收入分布与进口需求
Per-capita Income, Income Distribution and Import Demand

马弘, 秦若冰
Ma Hong, Qin Ruobing

清华大学经济管理学院 北京 100084
School of Economics and Management, Tsinghua University

出版日期: 2020-04-17
2020, Vol. 42(2): 20-33
DOI: 10.12088/PKU.jjkx.2020.02.02


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摘要 由于消费者偏好是非位似的,收入水平和分布的变化会影响进口需求结构,且对不同类型消费品的影响不尽相同。本文使用2002—2017年城镇居民家庭住户调查(UHS)和海关数据,构建收入水平和收入分布指标,对消费品进口需求进行边际分解,可以发现:随着收入水平提高,消费者对高收入弹性消费品的进口需求增速更快,其中约25%是来自于进口产品范围的扩张,75%是来自对同类商品进口强度的增加;相比于低收入弹性消费品,高收入弹性消费品的质量分布更为分散,产品差异性更大,伴随收入水平提升,消费者对于高质量消费品的进口需求显著增加。此外,收入分布的右偏会进一步加强上述效应。为适应收入水平提升推动的进口多元化和产品质量升级诉求,国家应进一步降低高收入弹性消费品进口的制度成本,主动扩大进口,充分发挥进口对提振消费、扩大开放的积极作用。
关键词 收入水平收入分布进口强度产品范围质量升级    
Abstract:Non-homothetic preference predicts an association between income and trade patterns. In this paper, we use data from the Chinese Urban Household Survey and the Customs to explore the effect of per-capita income and income distribution on import demand with respect to extensive margin, intensive margin and quality upgrading. Empirical test shows that provinces of higher income levels import more high income-elastic goods, where the extensive margin contributes 25% and the intensive margin contributes 75%. The import quality within categories improves systematically with per-capita income as well, and the positive skewness of income distribution strengthens the effects. In order to meet the expanding demand for diversified income-elastic and high-quality goods driven by rising income, the Chinese government should take further steps to lower tariffs, reduce institutional costs in import, and continue opening up.
Key wordsPer-capita income    Income distribution    Intensive margin    Extensive margin    Quality upgrading
ZTFLH:  F740.6  
基金资助:* 本文获得国家自然科学基金项目“贸易开放与企业创新:全球化与经济增长动力研究”(项目编号:71673160)和国家社科基金重大项目“中国IFDI与OFDI互动发展的内在机制与经济学解释”(项目编号:16ZDA043)的资助
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