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人口与发展 - 2017, Vol. 23(1): 43-54
老龄研究
代际支持对老年人健康的影响——基于社会交换理论的视角
Effects of Intergenerational Support on Health among Elderly——A Study Based on the Perspective of Social Exchange Theory

黄庆波, 胡玉坤, 陈功*
Qing-bo HUANG, Yu-kun HU, Gong CHEN

北京大学 人口研究所,北京 100871
Institute of Population Research,Peking University,Beijing 100871,China

收稿日期: 2016-03-30
出版日期: 2017-12-29
2017, Vol. 23(1): 43-54
DOI: 10.13209/1674-1668.2017.1.43


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摘要 

基于社会交换理论,利用2010年中国妇女社会地位调查老年人专项数据,通过Logistic回归模型,分析代际支持对老年人自评健康的影响。结果显示,62.98%的老年人与成年子女之间的代际支持不均衡。模型一显示,与完全没有给予代际支持的老年人相比,给予1项、2项、3项代际支持的老年人的自评健康不好的发生比较低;与完全没有接受支持的老年人相比,接受2项代际支持的老年人的自评健康不好的发生比更高;与代际支持均衡的老年人相比,代际支持不均衡的老年人的自评健康不好的发生比较高;代际支持的均衡性与代际交换强度每增加一个单位,老年人自评健康不好的发生比就分别下降8%和9%。给予代际支持、代际支持均衡性与代际交换强度对健康均有显著的影响,未来的老龄政策应大力鼓励向下的代际支持、提升代际支持的均衡性、增加代际支持的交换强度。

关键词 老年人自评健康代际支持社会交换    
Abstract

Based on the social exchange theory,we used data focusing on elderly from the 2010 Survey on the Social Status of Women in China to analyze the effect of the different dimensions of intergenerational support on the self-rated health among elderly through Logistic regression.The results show that 62.98% of old adults had inbalance intergenerational exchanges with their adult children.Compared with these without any giving support,elderly who are giving one,two and three kind of support are less likely to report being poor self-rated health.These who are receiving two kinds of support are more likely to report being poor self-reported health when comparing these receiving no support.The odd ration of being poor self-reported health for old adults who are out of balance in intergenerational exchange are higher than these with balanced exchange;With each unit increase in amount of balance and intensity of exchange,the Odds ratio of reporting being poor self-rated health is decreasing 8% and 9%,respectively.Based on the significant effects of giving,receiving,balance,intensity in intergenerational support on health among old adults,future policies related to aging should strongly encourage downward flow of intergenerational support,increase the balance of intergenerational exchange and the intensity of intergenerational exchange.

Key wordsold adults    self-report health    intergenerational support    social exchange
ZTFLH:  C913.6  
基金资助:北京大学研究生院才斋奖学金项目资助 (项目名称:家庭关系与社区环境对老年健康的影响研究 项目编号:CZ201514)
通讯作者: 陈功   
作者简介:

作者简介:黄庆波(1987—),男,北京大学人口研究所博士研究生;胡玉坤(1963—),女,北京大学人口研究所副教授、博士。

变量名称 定义 分类或取值范围
代际支持
给予代际支持 给予的代际支持种类之和 无、1项、2项、3项
接受代际支持 接受的代际支持种类之和 无、1项、2项、3项
代际支持均衡性 给予代际支持和接受的代际支持数量之差 -3~3之间
代际支持是否均衡 给予代际支持和接受的代际支持是否相等 是、否
代际交换强度 给予代际支持和接受代际支持的数量之和 0~6之间
人口基本特征
性别 你的性别 男、女
年龄组(岁) 你出生年月 60~69;70~79,;80+
婚姻状况 你目前的婚姻状况 在婚、未在婚
民族 你的民族 汉族、少数民族
城乡 农村还是城市 城市、农村
社会经济地位
受教育程度 你的受教育程度 文盲、小学、初中、高中及以上
年收入水平 去年你个人的总收入是多少元 高、中、低
党员/干部 是否是党员身份或担任过小组长以上的职务 是、否
从事有偿工作 目前你是否从事有收入的工作/劳动 是、否
家庭环境
家庭虐待 近一年,你家人对您是否有如下虐待行为 是、否
子女数量 你一共有几个孩子 1~10之间
是否与子女同住 你和子女住在一起吗 是、否
社会环境
邻里关系 你和街坊邻居的关系 不往来、有往来、比较熟悉
社会参与 你参与文娱、志愿者或宗教等活动频率 0~6分之间
  主要自变量和控制变量的定义与分类
变量和分类 n(mean) %(SD)
性别
4517 50.14
4491 49.86
年龄组(岁)
60-69 3447 38.27
70-79 4443 49.32
80+ 1118 12.41
民族
汉族 8172 90.72
少数民族 836 9.28
婚姻状况
未在婚 3142 34.88
在婚 5886 65.12
城乡
城市 4491 49.86
农村 4517 50.14
受教育程度
文盲 3284 36.46
小学 2875 31.92
初中 1528 16.96
高中及以上 1321 14.66
党员/干部
6036 67.01
2972 32.99
从事有偿工作
7374 81.86
1634 18.14
年收入水平(元)
3005 33.36
2999 33.29
3004 33.35
社会参与 0.64 1.08
邻里关系
不交往 922 10.24
有交往 3143 34.89
比较熟悉 4943 54.87
家庭虐待
8369 92.91
639 7.09
是否与子女同住
6241 69.28
2767 30.72
子女数量 3.5 1.5
给予代际支持
0项 633 7.03
1项 1639 18.19
2项 3620 40.19
3项 3116 34.59
接受代际支持
0项 412 4.57
1项 971 10.78
2项 1951 21.66
3项 5674 62.99
代际支持是否均衡
3335 37.02
5673 62.98
代际支持均衡性 -0.41 1.11
代际交换强度 4.45 1.36
  样本的基本特征描述(N=9008)
变量与分类 自评健康 p值
不好
性别
3533(78.22) 984(21.78) <0.001
3292(73.30) 1199(26.70)
年龄组(岁)
60-69 2695(78.18) 752(21.82) <0.001
70-79 3339(75.15) 1104(24.85)
80+ 791(70.75) 327(29.25)
民族
汉族 6250(76.48) 1922(23.52) <0.001
少数民族 575(68.78) 261(31.22)
婚姻状况
未在婚 2318(73.77) 824(26.23) 0.001
在婚 4507(76.83) 1359(23.17)
城乡
城市 3589(79.92) 902(20.08) <0.001
农村 3236(71.64) 1281(28.36)
受教育程度
文盲 2262(68.88) 1022(31.12) <0.001
小学 2184(75.97) 691(24.03)
初中 1239(81.09) 289(18.91)
高中及以上 1140(86.30) 181(13..70)
党员/干部
4437(73.51) 1599(26.49) <0.001
2388(80.35) 584(19.65)
从事有偿工作
5486(74.40) 1888(25.60) <0.001
1339(81.95) 295(18.05)
年收入水平
2019(67.19) 986(32.81) <0.001
2284(76.16) 715(23.84)
2522(83.95) 482(16.05)
社会参与a 0.71(1.12) 0.39(0.87) <0.001
邻里关系
不交往 649(70.39) 273(29.61) <0.001
有交往 2327(74.04) 816(25.96)
比较熟悉 3849(77.87) 1094(22.13)
家庭虐待
6470(77.31) 1899(22.69) <0.001
355(55.56) 284(44.44)
是否与子女同住
4785(76.67) 1456(23.33) 0.003
2040(73.73) 727(26.27)
子女数量a 3.43(1.46) 3.71(1.51) <0.001
给予代际支持b
0项 411(64.93) 222(35.07) <0.001
1项 1164(71.02) 475(28.98)
2项 2721(75.17) 899(24.83)
3项 2529(81.16) 587(18.84)
接受代际支持b
0项 307(74.15) 105(25.49) 0.516
1项 750(77.24) 221(22.76)
2项 1462(74.94) 489(25.06)
3项 4306(75.89) 1368(24.11)
代际支持是否均衡
2614(78.38) 721(21.62) <0.001
4211(74.23) 1462(25.77)
代际支持均衡性a -0.35(1.11) -0.62(1.11) <0.001
代际交换强度a 4.50(1.36) 4.27(1.40) <0.001
  老年人自评健康影响因素的相关分析(n=9008, n/%)
变量(参考组) 模型(1) 模型(2) 模型(3) 模型(4)
给予代际支持(0项)
1项 0.83*
2项 0.71***
3项 0.59***
接受代际支持(0项)
1项 1.14
2项 1.39**
3项 1.08
支持是否均衡(均衡) .
不均衡 1.13**
代际支持均衡性 0.92***
代际交换强度 0.91***
性别(男) . . . .
1.13** 1.12* 1.12** 1.13**
年龄组(60-69岁) . . . .
70-79 1.05 1.06 1.05 1.06
80+ 1.06 1.10 1.07 1.09
民族(汉) . . . .
少数民族 1.39*** 1.37*** 1.38*** 1.38***
婚姻(未在婚) . . . .
在婚 1.10 1.09 1.07 1.11
城乡(城市 ) . . . .
农村 1.21*** 1.21*** 1.23*** 1.20***
受教育水平(文盲) . . . .
小学 0.86** 0.86** 0.86** 0.86**
初中 0.78*** 0.77*** 0.78*** 0.78***
高中及以上 0.61*** 0.60*** 0.60*** 0.61***
党员/干部(否) . . . .
1.11 1.11 1.12* 1.11
从事有偿工作(否) . . . .
0.52*** 0.52*** 0.53*** 0.51***
年收入水平(低) . . . .
0.82*** 0.83*** 0.84*** 0.82***
0.58*** 0.58*** 0.61*** 0.57***
社会参与 0.77*** 0.76*** 0.76*** 0.77***
邻里关系(不往来) . . . .
有交往 0.85* 0.83** 0.84** 0.85*
比较熟悉 0.73*** 0.71*** 0.71*** 0.73***
家庭虐待(否) . . . .
2.40*** 2.50*** 2.59*** 2.27***
是否与子女同住(否) . . . .
1.17*** 1.12** 1.13** 1.16***
子女数量 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.03
  代际支持与老年人自评健康之间的Logistic回归(OR,n=9008)
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